Free radicals, also known as REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, are waste substances produced by cells as the body processes food and reacts with the environment. If the body cannot process and remove free radicals efficiently, oxidative stress can result which causes severe damage to the cells and body function.

Factors increasing free radicals

Factors that can increase the production of free radicals in the body can be internal, such as inflammation, or may also be external, for example, environmental pollution, UV exposure, cigarette smoke, drug abuse, or exposure to x ray and gamma rays.

Effects of Oxidative Stress

Antioxidants can protect against oxidative stress i.e.massive cell damages caused by free radicals. Oxidative stress has been linked to cardiac ailments, cancer, arthritis, stroke, respiratory diseases, immune deficiency, emphysema, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and other inflammatory or ischemic conditions.


Activities and processes that can lead to oxidative stress include one or more of the following activities:

1.mitochondrial activity

2.excessive exercise

3. inflammation and injury to tissue

4.ischemia and reperfusion damage

5.consumption of certain foods, especially refined and processed foods, trans fats, artificial sweeteners, and certain dyes and additives


7.environmental pollution


9.exposure to chemicals, such as pesticides and drugs, including chemotherapy

10. ozone

Harmful effects of OXIDATIVE STRESS

Such activities and exposures can result in cell damage and this may lead to the following effects: excessive release of free iron or copper ions. activation of phagocytes (a type of white blood cell with a role of engulfing cells). increase in the quantity of enzymes that generate free radicals.

4.a disruption of electron transport chains during Glycolysis and TCA cycle.

The damage caused by oxidative stress has been linked to CANCERS like CARCINOMA, SARCOMA, MELANOMA, LYMPHOMA & LEUKAEMIA, atherosclerosis, and a complete loss of visual acuity like SPATIAL ACUITY, TEMPORAL ACUITY, SPECTRAL ACUITY. It is thought that the free radicals cause changes in the cells that lead to these and possibly other conditions.


Antioxidants act as free radical scavenger, hydrogen donor, electron donor, peroxide decomposer, singlet oxygen quencher, enzyme inhibitor, synergist, metal-chelating agents, anti depressant, anxiolytic agent, rejuvenating agent. Think of them as a team of good friends or co-workers defending the body against destructive unstable molecules.

Antioxidants are believed to be of great help to neutralize free radicals in our bodies, and this is thought to boost overall health and immunity.

The family of Antioxidants

Glutathione is the most powerful and important among the antioxidants our body produces. It is a combination of three amino acids.  It  is a substance made from the amino acids glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. It is produced by the liver and involved in many body processes. It is involved in tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and in immune system function. It tackles ageing through the intestines and circulatory system. It has strong anti-ageing properties, it protects cells, tissues and organs of the body and it keeps them young.

There are many xanthin carotenoids which remove free radicals from the Human system. They are Neoxanthin, Canthaxanthin, Antheraxanthin, Astaxanthin, Zeaxanthin, Fucoxanthin, Violaxanthin and many more. They all have anti proliferative, anti inflammatory and proapoptotic activities against human cancer cell lines.

Zeaxanthin is thought to function as a light filter, protecting the eye tissues from sunlight damage. Foods rich in zeaxanthin include eggs, oranges, grapes, corn, mango, orange pepper, and some other vegetables and fruits.

People use zeaxanthin for age-related vision loss. It’s also used for eye strain, mental decline, heart disease, breast cancer, cataracts, and many other conditions, but there’s no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Of the 700 carotenoids identified in nature, only about 20 have been consistently found in the human body. Of these, zeaxanthin and lutein are primarily found in the human eye.

You can find zeaxanthin and lutein in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and animal products, such as egg yolks.

ASTAXANTHIN extract nutraceutical developed in Sweden.

ASTAXANTHIN is one of the most powerful Antioxidants which is a red pigmented ketocarotenoid found in many types of microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) and yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous). It is a fat soluble pigment with powerful Antioxidant properties that protects the cells from the harmful effects of free radicals and oxidative stress by neutralizing reactive oxygen.

In humans, the most studied functions of carotenoids — including Astaxanthin — are vision and their role in eye health and the reduced risk of eye disease. In addition, Astaxanthin can influence the immune system by activating T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells. While T cells attack foreign cells based on antigen markers, NK cells do not require activation and work at a faster rate to stop the invasion that can weaken a man’s health. This pigment acts on reactive oxygen species to reduce proteins that can cause inflammatory diseases like celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, and diabetes.

Protection from UV Skin Damage

Taking supplements or consuming foods rich in astaxanthin may also help to protect the skin against ultraviolet (UV)  damage. Astaxanthin accumulates in the epidermis and dermis layers of your skin, helping to block UV penetration and reduce existing damage.

Examples of antioxidants that come from outside the body include:

vitamin A

vitamin C

vitamin E









Astaxanthin is a marine-based antioxidant found in salmon, and has been crowned “King of the Carotenoids” because it is proved to be five times more potent than beta-carotene, the stuff in carrots, and 6,000 times more potent than vitamin C.

When it comes to heart health, astaxanthin can help support HDL (the good cholesterol) levels, maintain healthy triglyceride and LDL levels (the bad cholesterol), and support healthy blood pressure.

It is good for brain health also.

In addition, astaxanthin may help maintain cognitive health. This is because it can cross the blood-brain barrier, providing powerful antioxidant support to the brain.

Flavonoids, flavones, catechins, polyphenols, and phytoestrogens are all types of antioxidants and phytonutrients, and they are all found in plant-based foods.

Each antioxidant serves a different function and is not interchangeable with another. This is why it is important to have a varied diet.

Foods that are particularly high in antioxidants are often referred to as a “superfood” or “functional food.”

To obtain some specific antioxidants, try to include the following in your diet:

Vitamin A: Dairy produce, eggs, and liver

Vitamin C: Most fruits and vegetables, especially berries, oranges, and bell peppers

Vitamin E: Nuts and seeds, sunflower and other vegetable oils, and green, leafy vegetables

Beta-carotene: Brightly colored fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, peas, spinach, and mangoes

Rich in lycopene

Lycopene: Pink and red fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes and watermelon

Lutein: Green, leafy vegetables, corn, papaya, and oranges

Selenium: Rice, corn, wheat, and other whole grains, as well as nuts, eggs, cheese, and legumes

Other foods that are believed to be good sources of antioxidants include:


legumes such as black beans or kidney beans

green and black teas

red grapes

dark chocolate


goji berries

Goji berries, Astaxanthin and many other food products that contain antioxidants are available to purchase online.

Foods with rich, vibrant colors often contain the most powerful antioxidants.

The following foods are good sources of antioxidants. Click on each one to find out more about their health benefits and nutritional information:






The bottom-line

Antioxidants came into public attention in the early 1990s, when scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. It was also linked to cancer, vision loss, and a host of other chronic conditions and severe respiratory disorders like SARS and recently we have seen the miracles of antioxidants during the pandemic situation of COVID 19. Some studies showed that people with low intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables were at greater risk for developing these chronic conditions than were people who ate plenty of those foods. Clinical trials began testing the impact of single substances in supplement form, especially Astaxanthin, Beta-carotene and Vitamin E, as weapons against chronic diseases.

Even before the results of these trials were in, the media and the supplement and food industries began to hype the benefits of “antioxidants.” Frozen berries, green tea, and other foods labeled as being rich in antioxidants began popping up in stores. Supplement makers recognized and sanctioned the disease-fighting properties of all sorts of antioxidants.


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